Indices to protect people against heat stress: a systematic review

Leonidas G. Ioannou1,2, Konstantinos Mantzios1, Lydia Tsoutsoubi1, Sean R. Notley3, Petros C. Dinas1, Matt Brearley4,5,
Yoram Epstein6, George Havenith6, Michael N. Sawka8, Peter Broede9, Igor B. Mekjavic10, Glen P. Kenny3,12,
Thomas E. Bernard11, Lars Nybo2, Andreas D. Flouris1,3*.

1FAME Laboratory, Department of Physical Education and Sport Science, University of Thessaly, Trikala, Greece.
2Department of Nutrition, Exercise and Sports, August Krogh Building, University of Copenhagen, Denmark.
3Human and Environmental Physiology Research Unit, Faculty of Health Sciences, University of Ottawa, Ontario, Canada.
4Thermal Hyperformance, Pty Ltd, Takura, QLD, Australia.
5National Critical Care and Trauma Response Centre, Darwin, NT, Australia.
6Heller Institute of Medical Research, Sheba Medical Center, Ramat Gan and the Sackler Faculty of Medicine, Tel Aviv University, Israel.
7Environmental Ergonomics Research Centre, Loughborough Design School, Loughborough University, Loughborough, United Kingdom.
8School of Biological Sciences, Georgia Institute of Technology, Atlanta, GA, USA.
9Department of Immunology, Leibniz Research Centre for Working Environment and Human Factors (IfADo), Dortmund, Germany.
10Department of Automation, Biocybernetics and Robotics, Jozef Stefan Institute, Slovenia.
11Clinical Epidemiology Program, Ottawa Hospital Research Institute, Ottawa, Canada.
12College of Public Health, University of South Florida, 13201 Bruce B Downs Boulevard, Tampa, FL 33612, USA.

Figure 1 | Countries in which the 185 meteo-based thermal stress indicators originated from, based on the affiliation of the first author.